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Canarrossa: After the Crescent Moon´s Legacy
Sencelles and Costitx, together with Santa Maria, Santa Eugènia, Consell, Binissalem and Alaró, belonged to the Muslim district of Canarrossa, which corresponded, once the island was conquered (1229), to the Viscount of Bearn.
Medievalists through research have been able to name of some of the Muslim farmsteads within this large district, which would later be part of Sencelles. Some of these toponyms have come down to us today with practically no alterations, allowing us to quickly identify the Muslim origin of the farmsteads(Binifuell, Biniali, Binifat, etc.)
On the other hand, let us be reminded that one of the most important legacies from the Al-Andalus culture was channeling and management of water, and hence a large number of words pertaining to Catalan lexicon, such as sinis (saniya), aljub (al -jubb), siquia (saqiya), etc. Whether the hydraulic infrastructures of the term can be ascribed to the Al- Andalus period or not, the truth is that these shared techniques and knowledge were implemented from the 10th century and last until our times.
The Saracen´s Well
The name of Jornets comes from the families that owned these lands from the 14th century, and were linked to the old Islamic farmstead of Biniferri (which we will visit later). In fact, one of the first references to a member of this family dates back to 1319, when Jaume Jornet sold two “sorts” of land from the Biniferrí farmstead to Guillem Nadal. Three centuries of Islamic domination has left an imprint on the town´s memory, and is evident in this data from the year 1412, when Jaume Simó, owner of the Jornets barn, says that he and his predecessors had the right to take water from the Saracen well.
Sometimes the memories of past cultures come to us through a single immaterial trace, in this case from toponymy. For some linguists the word badaluc comes from the Arabic ba’da al-lyy, which means “depth, cliff, hole”. While it is true, this place near the torrent of Vinagrella or Rafal Garcès is not exactly a badaluc, but the lands near the torrent represent a remarkable depth with respect to the flat lands of the region, as with other badalucs located in Mallorca.
Water for Islam is the source of life and knowledge. Hence this element is crucial for understanding their material and spiritual culture. In fact, one of the many legacies of its three centuries in Mayurca was hydraulic engineering. Although we cannot affirm that the well of Brió is originally from that time, it is definitely the heritage of a culture where water is essential for all the needs of life. This public deposit, located at a major crossroad, is 2´5 m by 1 m and with a depth of 8´5 m. Next to it there is a stone trough used to give water to cattle.
As its name suggests, Biniferrí is an ancient Islamic farmstead, documented as early as 1232, named Biniferrin and had an extension of 20 jovadas. In the following century it became associated with the Jornet family, a lineage of land owners. During much of the medieval period the old farmstead passed from one hand to another (Plegamans, Talabrell, Vivot, etc.). In the 16th century, documents show that the old farmstead was divided into several barns: that of Pere Aloi, of Rafel Verd; that of Felip Aloi, of Luciano Verd and Gabriel Serra d’Inca. All these lands obviously had a water deposit, documented in 1454. It is known at this time; Bartomeu Llabrés defended his right to be able to give water to his cattle from the well of Biniferrí.
Here is another farmhouse of Al- Andalus origin, which appears in the documents as early as 1232, immediately after the conquest. One of the first owners was Ramon de Vall-Llebrera. Later it belonged to the Umberts, the Benages´ and finally to the Verds. In the 15th century it passed on to the Campaneros, who had other properties in the area. As the case of other farmsteads, little by little the lands were divided to form smaller farms: Son Batle, Son Prim, etc. At the end of the 18th century, Jeroni de Berard points out that in total there were “eight or nine houses.”
Located in the middle of the public path of Binifuell. It is a circular water deposit, with a depth of more than 12 m. Its neck is rectangular, while the walls are constructed with two large slabs of stone laid with foundations. It has two square section pillars, with a height of 160 cm, made of sandstone. It is more than likely that the origin of this water deposit is as old as the farmstead.